Kakarikis come in several different mutations. This page discusses some of the most common mutations that are available in the United States. There are several that are only in Europe and/or Australia.
The most common species kept in captivity in the US is the Red-Fronted Kakariki (also called the Red-Fronted Parakeet). The normal coloration is a bright green body with blue primary covert feathers, and a red forehead and eye stripe. The beak and legs are dark gray. Males and females do not differ in coloration, but males are typically larger overall and can be identified by having a larger more robust beak.
Cinnamon Green & Cinnamon Turquoise
Cinnamon is a sex-linked recessive mutation that reduces the eumelanin (brown pigment) in the feathers. In a Green series bird, this creates a dusty green color and also causes the normally bright blue coverts to turn into a pale misty blue color instead. When a bird is Cinnamon and also genetically Turquoise, the bird becomes a pale/pastel turquoise color. Cinnamon Kakarikis usually have pale cream colored legs and feet. Cinnamons can be easily identified at hatching because they will have plum colored eyes. These are not to be confused with Fallow, which would be bright red at hatching.
Turquoise is an autosomal recessive mutation that results in the birds inability to produce yellow pigment. The resultant bird appears blue as a result (Blue + Yellow = Green). The red on the crown and eye stripe is not fully affected and appears as a Salmon color instead.
Dominant & Recessive Pied
Kakarikis have two standard forms of pied (there is technically a third, but it does not yet exist in the US). In green pieds, the pied feathers are yellow, in turquoise pied, they are cream or white. In a Dominant Pied bird you will usually see pied feathers in the tail, the primary flight feathers, and the throat and nape of the neck - the degree of patterning is highly variable, but the areas where pied feathers are seen is pretty typical. Recessive pieds usually have much larger swaths of pied coloration and typically have a darker iris that dominant pieds.
With the importation of the Spangle gene from Europe, Mottle has been introduced into aviculture in the US as well. Mottles are a variation of pied. Often, these birds will become progressively more pied with each molt. The patterning is more splotchy. It reminds me a lot of Appaloosa markings on horses as far as the way the pied markings appear on the body.
Turquoise Spangle Mottled Cock
Yellow (Yellow Goldcheck)
Yellow Kakarikis are actually the result of combining Dominant and Recessive pied. What this means is that there isn't a singular 'yellow' mutation gene responsible. This can be shown by pairing a Yellow to a wild-type green bird. The resultant offspring will all be dominant pied split to recessive pied.
A Cream Kakariki is a bird that is Yellow Goldcheck but genetically Turquoise. Instead of appearing yellow, the bird appears cream instead. There is no such thing as 'split to cream' as a result. A cream bird paired to a normal, wild type green would produce Dominant Green Pieds split to Recessive Pied and Turquoise.
Spangle is a newly imported mutation that causes a scalloping affect on the feathers. It is autosomal recessive and can appear on any base color as well as along with pied.
Dark Factor is actually a mutation that affects the feather structure which in turn affects how the color is absorbed or reflected back to our eye. In most cases, for instance, blue is actually a structural color and not a pigment color in feathers. Dark Factor causes a change in the feather structure which creates a bird that appears much darker visually to our eye. In D birds, you get Olive Greens and Dark Turquoise. With DD birds, you get Olives in a Green series and Mauve in Turquoise series. Dark Factor is incompletely dominant which means that a single copy causes a blended affect with the base line color, and two copies has 100% expression.
D Turquoise Pied Male
DD Turquoise (Mauve) Pied Split Spangle Female